Minnesota American Indians
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Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations. In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children.
For the Ojibwa, for instance, microfilms of census, vital, land, and family records are available from to Additional sources are at the Minnesota Historical Society Library, including:. Records of the various tribes can be found by looking under the name of the tribe in the Subject Search of the FamilySearch Catalog and under "Indians of North America — Minnesota.
From the mid's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent or superintendent was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies. The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. Department of Interior and U.
Category:Native American tribes in Minnesota
Geological Survey. The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America  , the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America  , and other sources. Some reservations are federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe s. Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government. Most of our sources pertain to people who were living in the Prairie Provinces in or earlier.
One unique collection is the Gail Morin who donated her 40, name data base to the archive in The data base is ancestral quest format and all in families with sources. Minnesota - History for a calendar that includes dates of importance to the Indians of Minnesota MinnesotaMilitary Records for a list of forts. Family History Library. To request editing rights on the Wiki, click here.
From FamilySearch Wiki. American Indian Research. Indians of Minnesota. Washington D. Available online Available online.
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Katherine M. In the state of Minnesota there are 11 sovereign American Indian nations comprised of seven Ojibwe Chippewa, Anishinaabe federally recognized reservations, and four Sioux Dakota communities. A reservation is land which was retained by American Indians after having ceded large portions of it to the United States government via treaty agreements.
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Most reservations were created by treaties, but some were created through executive order or by other agreements. Each Ojibwe reservation was initially established via treaty, and six of the seven reservations were subjected to the Dawes Act of also known as the General Allotment act , meaning that the land was subjected to private ownership.
The Red Lake reservation maintained its status as closed, which means that all of the land there still legally belongs to all of the tribal members collectively. The four Sioux communities were originally all one reservation recognized by treaty which spanned miles on each side of the Minnesota River. However, after the US-Dakota Conflict of Congress rescinded all treaties made with the Sioux, and subsequently people were forced from their homes.
The communities as they exist now are small fragments of the original reservation, and were restored to the Sioux in Located in northern Minnesota just south of the Canadian border within the counties of Saint Louis and Koochiching, Bois Forte—or strong wood—was named by French fur traders for the dense forests populating the area. The tribal headquarters are located in Nett Lake. The Bois Forte Band of Ojibwe did not originate here, they journeyed from the east along the Saint Lawrence River and followed it inland. The reservation here was created when, in , the American Indians in northern Minnesota ceded land spanning the entire northern portion of the state and were then told to select reservation lands within the vicinity of Lake Vermillion, which was near the heart of their community, but they retained the right to hunt and fish within the ceded territories.
When word began to travel that there was gold beneath the reservation at Bois Forte near Lake Vermillion, the Treaty of relinquished much of the reservation claims and left the Ojibwe with , acres at Nett Lake. The tribal headquarters are in Cloquet.
American Indian Movement
Archaeologists say that present day Chippewa have resided in the Great Lakes region since at least AD, though oral traditions do speak of a westward migration from the east. There are generally four periods utilized to define the scape of Chippewa generations: pre-contact, and then contact with the French, English, and the United States settlers. Most notable in regards to the ways in which the land is modernly distributed are the English and United States periods of contact.
The English degraded the native ways of life, and relations only worsened when the United States defeated the English and opened westward migration. As settlers came from the east they brought with them their ambition to ceaselessly log forests and create farming communities; a string of treaties were signed which made the traditional ways of the Chippewa impossible, such as hunting and gathering.
Chippewa rights to the land were eroded and ignored.
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In the LaPointe Treaty of , the Chippewa ceded a quarter of the land they inhabited in Minnesota and Wisconsin, plus all of the land on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and finally established the , acres of land now comprising the Fond du Lac Reservation. Located in Cook county, Grand Portage is in the extreme northeast corner of Minnesota.
The reservation extends about 18 miles along the shores of Lake Superior. The namesake of this reservartion comes from the nine-mile portage necessary to bypass the waters of the Pigeon River to make it inland. The French, and then the British utilized this area in the fur trade throughout the 18th century.
ensawatervi.gq Today, Ojibwe on Grand Portage remain close with those straddling the United States and Canada border, as it often splits extended families. The population of Grand Portage has been notoriously small, in only 60 people were reported.
They were originally members of the Lake Superior Band, but were not participants in the early Ojibwe treaties with the US. In , they ceded their lands in the Arrowhead region of Minnesota and accepted Grand Portage as their new home. The tribe established a Land Use Ordinance in that protects and sets aside certain lands on the reservation. Made up of 11 different communities, Leech Lake is in north central Minnesota, and its tribal headquarters are in Cass Lake. In and , treaties were signed that formed the lay of the land, requiring ceded land, but in a treaty was expanded and the reservation was consolidated into the area of the three lakes.
At the time the intent was to have all American Indians from the scattered reservations around the state to move onto Leech Lake, but later the plans had changed to make that intent reserved for White Earth. Seventy-five percent of the Chippewa National Forest is housed on the reservation, and other governments actually own a large portion of the land, leaving the Leech Lake Tribe holding the smallest percentage of land on the reservation, and the tribe owning the smallest portion of their land of any in Minnesota.
However, when white settlers began encroaching, there was pressure for Mille Lacs residents to leave and relocate to White Earth. Some members refused to leave, and by the early twentieth century these American Indians became federally known as the Non-Removal Mille Lacs Chippewa Band. The reservation itself was established by a treaty in Located in northern Minnesota, the land is comprised of many different types of ecology.