Clever Vokabeln lernen - Mit dem Esel nach Spanien (German Edition)
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Most of this text must be translated by the student using his or her acquired vocabulary and the vocabulary presented at the bottom of each lesson. As the German text is read preferably out loud , the student must succeed in gaining an understanding of the meaning of each sentence, and of the role each word plays in establishing that meaning.
To the beginner, there will seem to be many words in a German sentence that are out of place or even redundant or unnecessary. These add subtleties to the language that will make sense eventually. But it is important to experience these subtleties from the very beginning.
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Level I is aimed at junior high and high school students. However, it can also be used by others just beginning to learn to speak or read German. The goal of Level I German is to introduce the basics of the German language without overwhelming students. Therefore, the vocabulary is formatted for translating from English which the students know into German. Although Level II is aimed at students and people who are a bit proficient after Level I, still, English translation will be used, so as to ease the learning.
It helps because, at times while learning a new language, even with basic understanding, the words are above normal understanding level, and thus require a "sub" assistance. German and English are quite close to each other, and are called language sisters or, more formally, cognate languages. Both belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Here are some major similarities:.
However, German is still one of the easiest languages for English speakers to learn.
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The differences will be tackled over the course of the lessons. The lessons are meant to be taken in order. You should read and review the German dialogs as often as possible. Many of the dialogs come with audio recordings by native speakers.
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These recordings are invaluable to learn the German pronunciation. If there is a recording, you can do several kinds of exercises:. On the contents page, you will see filled-in boxes next to each lesson. The number of boxes corresponds to the completeness of the lesson as follows:.
This lesson deals with basic conversation topics such as saying hello and goodbye and asking people how they are feeling. This lesson features audio recordings by native speakers to help you with the pronunciation. Read and listen to the following dialogue between two students: Franz and Greta.
Sprachkurs Deutsch 3
You don't have to understand anything! You should rather try to find out how each word is pronounced. Now try to understand the dialogue with the help of the following list of vocabulary. A complete translation is given in the answers to the next problems. The others, of course, would be useful to know if you are traveling to regions where they are used.
As you can see, the different German-speaking regions often have their own ways of saying hello and goodbye. However, you will not be required to know any of these less common phrases for any problems or tests. The more formal phrases are guten Morgen , guten Tag , and auf Wiedersehen. The others are somewhat neutral on the formal-informal scale. In German, Herr and Frau are used instead of Mr.
Schwarz — Herr Schwarz. Frau is used for married and unmarried women. Literally, der Herr means the gentleman and die Frau means the woman. If you use these words without a last name after them, you have to use an article before them; e. This is actually just like in English.
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Note also that the German translation of the man is der Mann and the lady should be translated to die Dame. Thus, without last names you would rather use these pairs:. The test consists of three parts: pronunciation, vocabulary, and translation. As always, you should write down your answers before you check them. Writing the German words is in fact a great way to practice the spelling of German words. The vocabulary and translation problems are all from English to German because this is what you have to learn if you want to communicate in German.
Once you are able to translate an English word to the corresponding German word, it won't be any problem to translate the German word back to English.
Literally, Freizeit means free time , i. In this dialogue, Franz and Greta are familiarizing each other with their sports activities. All three verbs that you were introduced to in Lesson 2 are irregular in some way; however, most verbs are regular verbs. Unfortunately, there are more endings in German. The following two tables show the endings for the two regular verbs spielen to play and machen to do; to make :.
As you see, the endings are the same for corresponding forms of spielen and machen. In fact, they are the same for all regular verbs. Thus, you can always just remove the -en from the infinitive of a regular German verb to form the stem e.
Here is a table with these endings:. Note that in English one plays sport, while in German one does sport. You can also use the question words from Lesson 3 to form more combinations:. Both German and English have compound sentences; the applications of these are enormous. They can be used in lists and also in compound sentences.
For example,. The new word, also — auch is very important.
A Practice Grammar of German (English and German Edition)
The one grammar rule about auch is that it always comes after the verb. Schauen , schreiben and schwimmen are all regular verbs; i. To conjugate them, you first remove the -en from the infinitive to form the stem i. Here is an example:. Arbeiten is an irregular verb; however, it has a simple change. Whenever the ending starts with a consonant, an -e- is added before it. For example, du arbeit e st not du arbeitst. Lesen is also an irregular verb.
For the second and third person singular the form is liest , i. Sehen is the last irregular verb. There are two common verb forms in English that just don't exist in German: the ing-form or: present progressive ; e. The simple rule is: these constructions don't exist in German. Thus, you should translate I am playing to ich spiele. Similarly, I do play is also translated to ich spiele. Anything else ich mache spielen or ich bin spielen is either not possible in German or has a different meaning.
The phrase I do not play should be translated to ich spiele nicht literally: I play not since nicht not comes usually after the verb. This may sound like Early Modern English in a play by Shakespeare, and this is no coincidence since German and English are both West Germanic languages.